Under U.S. export control laws, a license from the Bureau of Industry and Security or the Department of Commerce may be required to export certain materials. Such materials are human pathogens, zoonoses, toxins, animal pathogens, genetically modified microorganisms, plant pathogens, radioactive substances, magnetic metals, propellants and ceramic materials. Anyone considering transferring materials controlled by the Department of Commerce or the Department of State outside the United States should cooperate with the UH Export Control Officer, Sandy Brown, to obtain the required license. There are civil and criminal penalties for non-compliance with export management rules. Faculty members who come to or leave the UH must have an MTA before transferring material from other institutions such as plasmids, cell lines, animals, etc. When it comes to sharing materials for research purposes, an institution that goes beyond conditions such as compensation and liability can be problematic. 17 The most advantageous for both parties is that the recipient assumes responsibility for its own use, whereas the supplier should not be held liable for the recipient`s actions. In other words, each party should be responsible for its own actions.
However, many A.A. contain language that does not match this feeling and therefore becomes problematic. Many state and federal institutions, for example, may not be legally able to accept indemnification clauses due to explicit laws that prohibit it. 18 More than half of TTOs agree that a supplier has forced the recipient to keep the supplier either sometimes, often, or always unharmed, and more than 80% of TTOs agree that it is important to resolve these issues. 19 The UBMTA does not provide for a period of compensation, but merely states that, with the exception of premeditation or gross negligence, it is the recipient who is responsible for his actions and not the supplier. This allows TTOs to avoid liability for most acts that do not have their responsibility and, at the same time, indicates to TTOs that other institutions should also not be held responsible for acts that are not in their hands. . . .