There was also a rare public rebuke from Mr. Obama, who said Trump`s withdrawal would make the world less secure and confronted it with “a lost choice between a nuclear Iran or another war in the Middle East.” An agreement between the major powers and Tehran on Iran`s nuclear program has been weakened since Washington unilaterally withdrew a year ago. In early November, Iran announced it would make a fourth step in the 2015 nuclear deal – injecting uranium gas into 1,044 centrifuges that had been kept empty under the terms of the deal. A year later, the United States also announced the end of JCPOA sanctions for cooperative nuclear projects, including the transfer of enriched uranium from Iran, the transfer and storage of heavy water outside Iran, and the construction of additional reactors in the Bushehr nuclear reactor. The Trump administration then promised to extend several of the waivers in the nuclear deal by 90 days to provide for certain nuclear cooperation projects in Iran, including waivers of the transformation of the Arak reactor, the transformation of the Fordow facility, the Bushehr reactor and the Tehran research reactor. However, the Trump administration has since denounced all waivers granted to cooperative nuclear projects, with the exception of the bushehr plant operation. Many of the nuclear provisions of the JCPOA have an expiration date. After ten years, for example, restrictions on centrifuges will be lifted, after fifteen years, restrictions on low-enriched uranium it may possess and IAEA access to undeclared sites. Other provisions do not have a deadline. “The international regime against nuclear proliferation is at stake,” he added. The president, however, formulated his decision as a fundamental election promise and as an act of a dealmaker who dissolves an agreement that has been fatally wrong. He predicted that his hard line on Iran would strengthen his hand as he prepared to meet with North Korean leader Kim Jong-un to begin negotiations on handing over his nuclear arsenal. “The Islamic Republic of Iran will end its definitive restrictions in the nuclear deal, which means limiting the number of centrifuges,” the Iranian government said in a statement published by the Times.
“Therefore, Iran`s nuclear program will have no restrictions on production, including enrichment capacity, the percentage and number of enriched uranium, as well as research and expansion.” In addition, Iran has agreed to allow inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Nuclear Monitoring Authority, access to its nuclear facilities. The IAEA has repeatedly found that Iran complies with the terms of the pact. Iran has accused the UNITED States of not respecting its commitments and Europe of submitting to the unilateralism of the United States. To keep the nuclear deal alive, France, Germany and the UK have set up an exchange system called INSTEX to facilitate transactions with Iran outside the US banking system, but it is only intended for food and medicine already exempt from US sanctions. In a joint statement in response to the US withdrawal, the leaders of France, Germany and the UK said the UN Security Council resolution approving the nuclear deal remained the “binding international legal framework for the settlement of the dispute”.  In May 2019, Iran began to gradually violate the agreement. . . .