Heads of State and Government reached consensus on issues ranging from the global economy to plastic waste. But climate change, where French opposition to U.S. efforts to dilute the language forcing members to the 2015 Paris climate agreement, nearly derailed the conference on day one. A 2004 report by Colin I Bradford and Johannes F. Linn, of the Brookings Institution, said the group was created primarily at the initiative of Eichel, the simultaneous chairman of the G7.  However, Bradford went on to describe Paul Martin, then Minister of Finance (and future Prime Minister of Canada), as “the decisive architect of the formation of the G20 at the level of finance” and as the one who then “proposed that the G20 countries move to summits at the leadership level.”  Canadian academic and journalistic sources also identified the G20 project initiated by Martin and then-U.S. Treasury Secretary Larry Summers.     However, all recognize that Germany and the United States have played a key role in achieving their vision. As a general rule, several participants who are not permanent members of the G20 are invited to participate in the summits. Norway, under the government of Erna Solberg, participated in the G20 summit in Hamburg in 2017 and participates in working groups and sub-working groups, for example on research.
[Citation required] Norway`s minister for the elderly will participate [when?] under Japan`s presidency of the 2019 G20. [Citation required] The row escalated in the months leading up to the summit, after talks between the two countries broke down in May. .